TROPICAL FISH AS A MIRROR OF GLOBAL WARMING
In the far Eastern marine reserve, founded by the Institute of marine biology Feb RAS in 1978 in Peter the Great Bay, met on several occasions fish-aliens from the tropics, but especially frequent were such meetings in recent years.
In August 2001, in the Bay West of the island of furugelma members of the research group during diving excursions met on a sandy shoal flock of small, very mobile fish. After a few days of feeding fish are used to treat and allowed himself to be photographed. It was North of the dog-fish (fugu) Blowfish from the family. They live in the coastal zone; reach a length of 50 cm Due to the special musculature of the pectoral fins of a puffer fish can move not only forward but also backward. Jaw teeth Fugue fused with each other and form in each jaw a pair of inserts separated from the front, it allows them to eat well attached to the substrate organisms-obratitesj. In case of danger fish filled with water or air saccular outgrowths of the stomach and swell, taking a spherical shape. Puffer fish are often toxic in their bodies contain dangerous poison – tetrodoxin. However, purified from the skin and peritoneum and properly cooked meat of these fish is used for food in many countries of South-East Asia, where the dish “fugu” is a delicacy.
Letom here have been found in shallow water Chinese yellowtail, amberjack or big. Seriola are large predators, reaching lengths of over 1 m; live on the continental shelf and form a small but dense aggregations in the water column. Seriali hunt groups for small fish (anchovy, sardine, mackerel), moving quickly from one area to another. In South-East Asia, the juveniles of the amberjack specially podesheveyut networks in obstructed areas of the sea, because the taste of the meat of these fish are highly valued. In the waters of the Gulf of Peter the Great met earlier yellowtail two other species, Golden and yellowtail.
The piece covered the network made a trip to our water another inhabitant of the tropics – the Sargasso sea clown. This fish, reaching lengths of 15 cm, inhabits the waters of the subtropics and tropics, where it is camouflaged among floating Sargasso algae, which helps camouflage the very painting. The blades of the pectoral fin in marine clown elongated, with a wide base, this helps the fish to move and stay between the algae. In the community Sargasso marine clown – one of the main predators along with triggerfish and Stavropolye. The dorsal fin on the head bears three barbed beam; front of them (Illicium) is like a “fishing rod”, on the free end of which there is usually a “bait” (ESCA). Moving the “rod”, the clown attracts its prey (small crustaceans, fish) and grabs her large oblique mouth. Sea clowns – single predators; when they’re guarding their territory and behave aggressively, adopt threatening postures and quickly to inflate the body. The use of fish in food is dangerous, they contain ciguatoxin.
From the rocky Western shore of the Bay among the common flocks of the East and yellow sea perch managed to see and photograph the striped applegate. Aplenty (noresume) live on coastal rocky shallow water and reach a length of 40 cm adult fish teeth on the jaws are connected by a solid plate and form a sort of beak, servant to obkusyvanie with stones food – sea urchins and shellfish. Applegate meat is as delicious, so despite its size, the fish has commercial importance in areas of its core habitat (off the coast of Korea, China, Japan, Hawaii).
An inhabitant of subtropical – Japanese Atka mackerel is usually found off the coast of Korea, Japan, and Northern China. This valuable commercial fish, found usually in the coastal strip near the bottom, reaches a length of 50 cm, the Presence of this species in Peter the Great Bay that is well established only in recent years. Bright yellow-orange male Atka mackerel guarding big, laying eggs, have repeatedly seen the divers at different points of the Bay. Interestingly, the Japanese Atka mackerel spawn not only with females of their own species, but with brown rasp – mass species in the Gulf, and possibly spotty. Males fiercely guard, laying eggs, driving away not only all the fish, but females are not ready to reproduce. Probably the ability to successfully interbreed with native form will enable Japanese greenling become a permanent resident of Peter the Great Bay.
Thus, species diversity of fishes of Peter the Great Bay are increasing, all are becoming more common tropical aliens. If global warming continues, scientists will have to reconsider familiar ideas about the limits of the zoogeographic zones.