Pond and lake fish farming
Our country has many natural and artificial lakes, ponds and other fresh bodies of water, many of which organized commercial cultivation of common carp, grass carp, silver carp, trout.
Carp grow quickly, are hardy, can live in stagnant water, unpretentious to the stern. He is prolific, and feeds on plants and invertebrates. In the third year of life the body weight of carp reaches 1.5-2 kg. Domesticated carp derived from wild carp living in the lower reaches of our rivers emptying into the southern sea. Bred several breeds of carp. In fish farms most often bred scaly, carp mirror and naked.
White Amur and silver carp is a herbivorous fish. White Amur feeds on various aquatic plants, rubbing their serrated teeth. The silver carp feeds mainly on plant plankton. These fish inhabit the ponds, which are rapidly overgrown with algae and other water plants. Especially promising is the cultivation in ponds-coolers at thermal power stations, reservoirs, irrigation canals, deltas and rivers. White Cupid and a silver carp is a large fish. They grow up to a meter (carp) and more than a meter in length (white Amur). Before these fish in our country could be found only in the waters of the Far East.
Razvodyat of trout ponds with clean cold water and hard rocky bottom.
Pond fish farms, where they raise carp, are complete and incomplete. Incomplete pond fish farms are only feeding the ponds. They purchased the spring release in the carp hatcheries of Godovikov, and in the fall catch of marketable fish. In feeding ponds of carp fed with boiled potatoes, cake, corn and other food.
Full pond farm is wintering, spawning, nursery and feeding ponds.
Spawning ponds are used for spawning producers, development of eggs and maintenance of larvae and fry in the first days of their life. It’s stagnant, and necessarily drain a small area (100 to 1000 m2) ponds with bottom covered with soft meadow vegetation on which the carp spawn. The depth of the spawning ponds does not exceed an average of 0.5 m, in most shallow areas up to 15-20 cm deep and 1.2— 1.6 m. After spawning, carp producers go into the deeper places, and upon the occurrence of bad weather out there hiding just out of the calf fry. Arrange the spawning ponds in areas protected from prevailing cold winds (North and northeast), as far as possible away from roads, driving cattle, watering points. Marsh, soured the soil for the device in the spawning ponds are not suitable.
Nursery ponds are used for rearing juveniles from 7 to 12 days of age until the end of summer. The average depth of ponds is generally 0.6 to 1.0 m (minimum of 0.25—0.3 m and maximum 1.5 m). For ease of operation suit nursery ponds with an area of no more than 5-10 ha. But there are nursery ponds large and smaller sizes. In these ponds it is necessary to create conditions for a good development of crustacean (the main food of carp fry). Sometimes as an intermediate link between the spawning and nursery ponds, especially in those farms where the area of nursery ponds is very high (this complicates the cultivation of hardy full-fledged juveniles of common carp), arrange so-called fry (seedling) ponds used for rearing of juvenile from 7-12 days to 30-40 days of age. Grown 30-40-day juveniles from Malkovich ponds are transplanted into nursery. Build ponds fry in well warmed by the sun, on fertile soils near spawning and nursery ponds. Malkovich depth of the ponds is on average about 0.5— 0.6 m with an area of from 0.25 to 1.5 to 2.0 ha.
Wintering ponds are used to save carp from autumn to spring of next year. They are satisfied with such depth, that non-freezing water layer was not less than 1 m. the Ponds do running, with dense, silty bottom, devoid of any vegetation and the water surface area of from 0.1—0.5 to 1.0—1.25 hectares. the oxygen Content of the water in wintering ponds should not fall below 3 cm3 in 1 l. In this regard, a complete change of water in the pond must be for 8-12 hours.
The fishing ponds are intended for growing (fattening) of marketable fish. Usually godovikam carp, planted in the fishing ponds in the spring, weighing 20-30 g, grow up here to fall to 500-800 g In size and the depth of the fishing ponds is much more nursery. Their size can reach up to 100 hectares and more. However, for the best of fish-breeding activities do not exceed 50 ha. In the state and collective farm pond fish culture as feeding usually use ponds ranging in size from 0.25 ha up to several hectares. The maximum feeding depth of the ponds should not exceed 3-4 m, because at greater depths worse than develop the necessary to supply carp animals and plants. Best of all, if the average depth of the feeding ponds will not exceed 1.5—2.0 m.
Royal ponds are summer and winter. They are intended for content producers and repair of juvenile fish (young carp selected for the tribe to replace culled producers). By their nature (depth, availability of natural food) summer Royal ponds should be the same as feeding grounds, and winter to correspond to the wintering. The uterine size of the ponds depend on the number of broodstock fish on the farm. In the autumn of 1 ha of these ponds receive more than 200 kg of fish. On the best farms grown to 3000-4000 kg per 1 ha.