How to breed fish in ponds
Pond fish farming is the breeding of commercial fish in specially adapted or constructed for this purpose reservoirs. Farms can be full (full system) or incomplete (napolnitelem). In full system retailing the fish grow from egg stage to marketable, and in breeding — pedigree producers for full-cycle hatcheries and commercial farms.
Not in full-cycle farms planting material is grown marketable fish. They are of two types. The widest form of fish farming is feeding the carp fish farm . Spring here are imported from hatcheries to fingerling of carp weighing up to 30 grams, put them in the fattening ponds,in the fall catch of marketable fish with an average weight of from 500 to 800 grams. To grow fish in feeding the economy easy and accessible to everyone farming.
Fish farming in ponds
Carp is a widespread inhabitant of warm-water ponds. For several hundred years, farmers brought from the wild carp are some of the cultural breeds of carp that have fast growth rate and high fecundity. Widely known scaly, mirror, naked and ramcity carp, but most are bred the first two.
The most favorable temperatureis life of common carp is 20 to 29 degrees. However, it grows well at water temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees. Stops eating at four degrees. In summer the normal life of a carp is about five centimetres squared of dissolved oxygen in 1 liter of water. The reduction of oxygen in water lowers the intensity of feeding and growth of this fish. The best medium for life is a carp water with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
In Russia and Belarus carp in the first year of life reaches a weight of 25-30 g, and by the end of the second year of life already have carp weight 500-800 g. the Sexual maturity – the spawning of common carp occurs in the fourth year of life in males and in females in the fifth. The female weighing up to four kg can give 600-800 thousand eggs, she lays eggs in the spring when the water temperature 18—hiraba.
In the first year of life carp feeds on small crustaceans (Cyclops, Daphnia), rotifers, small midges, in the second year carp feed on insect larvae and partly by planktonic organisms. In addition, he eats a variety oil-cake, lupine, peas, waste cereals, boiled potato and animal food: mollusks, silkworms, frogs, tadpoles.
Carp is a fast — growing food fish, widely spread in fish farms, especially hybrid carp with the common carp. The rate of growth of carp is not inferior to the common carp. Carp fingerlings reach a weight of up to 30 g, and two-year old as much as 500-600 g.
Common carp becomes sexually Mature at the age of 3-4 years. Average fecundity is about 700-800 thousand of his eggs. Carp and hybrid carp with carp hardier than carp.
Silver carp is used in the feeding ponds as surplus fish. Carp hardy fish . undemanding to water quality. Silver carp grow more slowly than carp or carp, and 2 years of age weighs 150-200 g. Mature silver carp becomes 2-3 years old.
An interesting biological feature of the goldfish is a small number of males. In most waters of of males considerably smaller than females, and the eggs fertilized by sperm of other fish. The resulting offspring inherit maternal traits. The fertility of their 160-380 thousand eggs. Spawning occurs at water temperatures of 20 degrees in may June. Landing carp to silver carp in the fishing ponds increases their productivity by 40-50 percent.
Lin is used as an additional fish in weedy and silty waters. The rearing of tench together with carp increases the productivity of fattening ponds by 15-20 percent. Food Lin is similar to the feeding carp. Fingerlings of tench weigh 3-5 g, 50 g two-year old, three years old, 200-250 g. the tench becomes sexually Mature at 3-4-th year of life. Spawning occurs in the middle or at the end of June. Fertility 200-800 thousand eggs. The gain of the line release at the age of 2 years.
Pike — a predatory fish . Reaches sexual maturity at 3-4-th year of life, fertility from 17 to 215 thousand eggs. Spawns immediately after opening of the rivers and lakes with water temperatures from 4 to 15 degrees. Months of age the fry feed on small crustaceans and bloodworms from the second month of life the fry of different fish. Pike fry feed on larvae, adult aquatic beetles, bugs, dragonflies, tadpoles, frogs and weed fish.
Of pike fingerlings are grown together with feeding carp in ponds to destroy trash fish. As a result replanting of pike fry feeding in carp ponds the fish production is increased by their amount to10—12 percents. Young of the year pike in ponds when there is abundant food reach a weight of 200-250 g, two-year old 1000-1200 g
Pike in pond farms in the feeding ponds, which are well oplavlyayutsya. This is primarily due to the fact that the pike can survive the winter, and another year to destroy all carp. On 1 hectare of fattening pond plant 150-250 of pike fry.