Golden pond fish
Fish farming, practiced in Ancient Egypt, as evidenced by the sources dated about 2000 BC, over four thousand years ago. In Mesopotamia, in temples the priests kept the fish in ponds. Fish were kept in ponds in ancient Rome and Greece.
But only in China began to engage in purposeful breeding of different breeds of fish, which we know under the name goldfish.
To the right is a detail of a mural in Egyptian tomb, which depicts a pond with fish
Goldfish is the usual subspecies of the goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). It is assumed that the subspecies living in China, was separated from the rest of toothcarps formed millions of years ago mountains. This subspecies, which is West of the Himalayas is not found, when it was developed ornamental goldfish.
Left – map showing the distribution of toothcarps ( Cypridontae ), to which the goldfish belongs, and the primary habitat of a goldfish. In the wild this fish niceley rivers, lakes, ponds and all dents filled with water. Carp undemanding and can live in flowing and stagnant water. In nature, fish may have different color variations, depending on ambient conditions. The most important of these conditions is light.
Fish that live in muddy ponds, deep rivers, etc. have a more pale color. Fish grown in bright light has a bright and intense color. Kraskopulty fish define three pigment:
black pigment – melanophore (melanophores)
Gelati pigment – xanthor (xanthophores)
red pigment – arbitrator (erythrophores), some speciality believe that yellow and red pigment are the same thing.
Different combinations of these pigments and guanine determine the color of a goldfish. Guanine – silver layer on the skin of the fish scales, which is transparent. In some species (gold fish breed “calico”) guanine is absent and the fish seems opaque.
Many legends about the origin of goldfish. One of them tells that goldfish, floating in the heavenly Palace, so played out that he fell over the edge of the cloud to the ground. The other about a terrible storm, during which the ocean could rampage over, thrown out of his depths on the shore fish of extraordinary beauty. The third legend narrates about a girl, beautiful as the dawn. The young man whom she loved, left her. She wept bitterly and her tears have any goldfish.
The exact date of appearance of the goldfish is unknown. One of the earliest European sources (Du Halde, Description de la China, 1735) refers to a colorful Chinese legend tells the story that during the Zhou dynasty (Chou). 769 BC during the time of drought, when there was no rain over a hundred days, the inhabitants prayed to the gods, among which was the God of the Golden fish. Suddenly the earth opened up and from the troubling of the water jumped the goldfish. Immediately after, it rained. This story is unlikely to serve as reliable svidetelstvom.
The first authentic reference secaida in the Chinese book of Feng Shui Tzu – Shu I Chi and belongs to the Zin dynasty (Chin) – by the middle of the fourth century of our era. Lushan visited the mountain, the traveller saw in the lake fish with red scales. This and other references related to the same time, do not relate to decorative gold fish, and to naturally occurring forms.
7th century – the beginning of an epoch of a dynasty of tan (Tang). The first half of the 300-year period was a time of military expansion, political and economic stability. This was the era procitana of art and culture, later called the Golden age of the tan. Strong influence on the culture has been Buddhism, in which a strong idea of caring for living creatures. In the ponds of Buddhist monasteries and began razvedenie decorative gold fish, called Chin-Chi-Yu. Probably at this time was taken simple goldfish, different from the conventional carp with their bright color.
In times came in the 10th century song dynasty (Sung, 960-g) gold fish to breed in many places. This time can be considered “official” birth decorative goldfish. Writer Lee sheen-Chen writes in that “in the old times the gold fish were unknown and only with the beginning of the song they were kept in the home”. The most important is the composition of a monk Tsan-ning (918-999) entitled “On the mutual influence of things”. It says that if a gold fish to feed pomace from olives or put in soapy water, they will die. If the water in ploit the bark of the poplar, the fish do not have lice ( a parasite of fish, found mainly in ponds )
The first authentic reference in the literature dates back to around the year 1030, in the essay su Tzu-Mei, “a Poem about the Pagoda of Six Harmonies”:
Near pine’s bridge I was waiting for the Golden Chi (fish)
I waited up late alone
In the era of the Ming dynasty (Ming) – 1368-1644 – started a “gold rush”. Not only the Emperor, who commanded special to dig a pond in the Palace, but people have become easier to get carried away with fashionable hobby. Golden fish began to appear not only in ponds but also in vases and other vessels. Imagine the complexity of the content “dirty” fish in the vessel without external electrical filter devices for changing of the water, dry, fortified feed, medicines for the treatment of “white dots on the tail.” Surely the cost of the fish (through their fertility) has dropped enough to allow the dummies to replace dead fish new. The Golden fish became a symbol of prosperity and affluence – advertising on TV did not exist then and the introduction of ideas went the other way. New market demanded new forms appeared and they were bred white, red, and white color forms. The content of fish at home has allowed withdrawal form that cannot survive in ponds. Glass aquariums did not exist then, fish were observed from above, and therefore become of the form is displayed for viewing from above – without the top fin facing up with eyes etc.