Fish farming in ponds
The pond in which they farm fish – is essentially the same cattle farm, requiring constant attention, but also has high economic efficiency.
With the right approach fish farming can be a quite profitable business. In recent times, agriculture of Russia there has been a positive trend in the sector for the breeding of pond fish. This trend in the economy attracts more and more representatives of small and medium-sized businesses. I should say that this activity has many nuances and specifics that you should consider when beginning this form of agricultural activity.
Even biology and appearance has its own special features and nuances to breeding particular breeds.
Thermophilic species, such as carp, prefers to dwell in the muddy ponds, stagnant water. This kind of pond you should build when breeding this breed. Carp doesn’t use all food resources designated water body. In order to increase economic efficiency and to use resources in full volume, experts recommend to plant in pond to carp fish with another food. For example, herbivorous. Such as tench, Amur, silver carp. But sometimes you can get and predators – pike, perch.
A cold-water species prefer pools with flowing water with deeper bottom, which consists mostly of pebbles and sand. Vendace,whitefish, rainbow and brook trout – that’s not the whole list of fish that can be bred with the use of such ponds. For trout very often hold the reservoir in a concreted pool.
All the experts in the industry of breeding fish for a long time and unanimously adopted the opinion that one of the most economically favorable species is carp. He has a larger growth rate, which has, perhaps, just pike. But in General comparing pike and carp significant advantages are on the side of the latter. The mere fact that pike feeds on fish that can eat humans, but carp — invertebrates, unfit for human food causes many owners of ponds for breeding fish to give preference to carp.
Another attractive for the breeding of representative fish was a tench. Although its rate of growth differ significantly from those of carp, tench can live in less comfortable conditions than carp, but because its cultivation is much lower and easier. Carp grows even slower, but it has found its admirers among those who have been breeding. Its main advantage is the ability to survive even in very harsh winter. At low temperatures and other adverse conditions. Breeding of this fish species are even in Northern cold areas where no other breed will not survive. However, despite this, a surprisingly high low-temperature stability Karas still belongs to the thermophilic species.
For cultivation in ponds and cultivation in an industrial scale there are a large number of fish. To start this form of management should carefully review all of the characteristics of each of them and choose the most suitable for you. It is worth considering all the subtleties and minor details. To obtain cost-effective and profitable pond management can play the role of every little thing. Otherwise, not only can you not get the expected benefits but also to sustain substantial losses.
Types of ponds.
Depending on the location of the ponds are of three types: channel, beam and floodplain. The first two types – deep, have great flow and direction. Compared to the floodplain they are less productive.
The ponds can be classified as feeding, spawning, nursery and wintering – depending on the purpose for which they are used.
What types of fish are best to plant.
At the present time in natural reservoirs there are about 80 different species of freshwater fish, but fishing and especially suitable for cultivation are not all types. For cultivation of most interest are those populations which are the greatest and whose taste quality is high. This such fish as carp, roach, perch, carp, trout, sabrefish and others.
Each species has its own growth rate and efficiency of feed consumed. Depending on these characteristics, fish are divided into three types: weed, unproductive and highly productive. The latter include carp, common carp and their hybrids. Marginal species are silver carp and Golden, weed and all the rest. During the first month of all kinds are on the same diet, but after diet changes, so when you check for fish in the ponds should carefully consider their nutrition.
There are two ways of fish farming: intensive and extensive.
The extensive method of cultivation suggests that feeding her is not necessary: the fish should eat the natural food. This method allows to obtain products with minimal costs, however, it is effective, generally, in the southern regions and in the presence of a large pond to grow carp along with fish feeding on the plants.
When you use the intensive method of fish must be feeding, and use irrigation and fertilizer.
The intensive method has several technologies. The most commonly used, which involves two – or three-year growing cycle. To work with this technology will need different categories of ponds, each designed for one cycle of cultivation of fish. If the high level of intensification (i.e., the fish are fed several times a day, grow several species together, actively fertilize the ponds, provide constant water flow and aeration), it is possible to obtain 5-6 kg per 1 ha of pond.
Another type of intensive cultivation is the so – called continuous technology. Its essence is that Karpov in age from 2 months to two years are grown in one pond, direct. Ie requires only two ponds? Fry and feeding.
One of the high-intensity methods is the rearing of fish in artificial pools or fish ponds. Cages installed in reservoirs, and most effectively this method works, if you set the cages in reservoirs-coolers.
The choice of technology depends on the types of fish that you plan to breed.
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